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Ireland is one of Scotland's closest neighbours, and their shared heritage runs deep; it is reflected in surnames (Mac or Mc?), language (Gaelic) and not to forget their national drink (Whisky or... More
Anybody who has taken a simple painless commercial ancestral Y-DNA test (which only explores your paternal ancestry) will potentially have matched many people with lots of different surnames, and... More
Don Anderson, who is an adoptee from Oregon, has released a book which is a must read for all adoptees wishing to uncover the identities of their birth parents. Its also a must read for anyone... More
The DNA does not lie and upon commercial ancestral DNA testing the people who appear as a genetic match to you share a common ancestor with you, it is merely a matter of when that shared ancestor... More
A Sample DNA Case Study which shows how the NEW Scottish Origenes Surnames, Clans, Castles and DNA maps can be used together with a simple painless commercial ancestral DNA test to rediscover your... More
DETAILING the origin of approximately 4,000 different Scottish surnames, the Medieval territories of 400 of the most prominent Scottish Clans and Families, and the precise location of 1000 Scottish... More
Surname distribution mapping reveals that the Graham surname is associated with Scotland and bordering English Counties. Since farmers with each surname still concentrate in the area where one’s... More
The beauty with the DNA approach to researching one’s ancestral origin is that the DNA does not lie! The area identified in an Irish, Scottish, English or Welsh Origenes personalised DNA report can... More
Surnames evolve over both time and distance, and change usually at the whim of an administrator who simply records an unfamiliar surname as he hears it. In this manner similar sounding surnames... More
The New Scottish Origenes ‘Scottish Surnames and DNA Map’ can now be purchased by clicking here. The map details the precise origin of approximately 4,000 Surnames that are associated with Scotland... More
At Family Tree DNA’s  annual conference in 2012 I presented results demonstrating that the Scottish 'Valentines' were descended from a MacGregor who had changed his surname sometime in the early... More
I’ve been busy recently doing Case Studies and working on a Surnames and Y-DNA Map of Scotland (previewed here). But this Valentine Case Study is one of my all-time favourites and I’d like to share... More
Paternally inherited surnames first appeared in Scotland in an agricultural based society. Since land ownership, or rather farmland tends to be handed down from father to son through the generations... More
On the 9th of May I gave a talk at the request of Irishgathering.ie to the ‘Sons of the American Revolution’ who were visiting Ireland. It was there that I met Charles McMillan. Charles had taken a... More
The more genetic markers one shares with another individual who has also taken a commercial ancestral Y-DNA test, then the more recent one’s common male ancestor lived. Hence matches at the 67 and... More
Sometimes a quite remarkable Y-DNA Case Study comes along that I will try my best to get published in a Genealogical magazine. The latest one published in Family Tree Magazine details the Paterson... More
I recently completed one of the most in-depth genetic genealogy Case Studies for a gentleman based on the Isle of Man called Bill Henderson. He had contacted me to do a free analysis on his Y-DNA... More
Every successful Irish, Scottish, or English Origenes Case Study tells an interesting story, some like the Durkin Case Study are easy to solve, others like the MacKenzie Case Study which features in... More
I was a guest speaker for Family Tree DNA at the 2013 Who Do You Think You Are LIVE event in London. The slides for that talk can now be downloaded by CLICKING HERE. This is my second set of talks... More
Mr McReynolds contacted me hoping that I would be able to interpret his commercial ancestral Y-DNA test results and help to solve the mystery as to the origins of his McReynolds ancestors. After the... More
I was invited by the world’s largest commercial ancestral DNA testing Company 'Family Tree DNA' to give a talk entitled 'Pinpointing a Geographical Origin' at their 8th Annual Genetic Genealogy... More
The Royal house of Scotland sprang from the Kings of the Scots, who constituted only one of the 6 peoples inhabiting the modern lands of Scotland. Yet when Kenneth, son of Alpin, united the Picts and... More
When one thinks of Scottish surnames, one almost always thinks of those that begin with Mc’ or Mac.’ This is an over simplification as Scottish surnames are quite diverse and reflect the various... More
Scotland was first settled roughly 10,000 years ago after the end of the last ice age. The first reference to the people of Scotland comes from Roman sources that referred to the people north of... More

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The Human Colonisation of Scotland

Scotland was first settled roughly 10,000 years ago after the end of the last ice age. The first reference to the people of Scotland comes from Roman sources that referred to the people north of Firth of Clyde and Firth of Forth as Picts, and whose territory was referred to as Caledonia. In 410 AD the Roman army withdrew and the areas above (occupied by Picts) and below the Antonine wall (occupied by the Roman-influenced Celtic Britons) were subject to Invasions from the 5th to 8th Centuries by 3 different population groups; Scots from Ireland, Anglo-Saxons from the continent, and the Norse from Scandinavia. The extent to which they replaced native populations, or have contributed to the genetic make-up of Scotland remains to be determined. DNA analysis may indeed shed light on this.

The Gaels and their Gaelic culture gradually overwhelmed or assimilated the Picts in the North, while the Anglo-Saxons predominated in the south. It was Anglo-Saxon language, a variant of early English which eventually became the predominant tongue of lowland Scotland, while the Gaelic Scots gifted the Gaelic language spoken largely in the Highlands and Islands. The Viking invaders eventually took hold of the Western Isles, Caithness, Sutherland, Galloway, Orkney and Shetland giving rise to the Mercenary Viking-Scottish warriors known as Gallowglass. The last of the medieval settlers the Normans, distant relatives of the Vikings, were invited into Scotland by King David 1st in 1124 AD. King DAvid was greatly impressed by the governmental and cultural innovations introduced by them into England.

 

Irish Origenes

English Origenes